ECONOMICS OF PROSTITUTION IN THE WORLD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS: THE WORLD DEVELOPMENT

DEVELOPMENT

Prostitution means every act or conduct and its related actions with the purpose of its trade and earning money for it. The world prostitution concept is divided into two parts: the first is prostitution that is providing and selling sex, the second is the sex industry which includes all types of dance and nudeness; providing sex via the internet or the sex services. The distinction between these concepts is attributed to the punishments stated in the legal systems of every country in terms of license, allowed and disallowed things, etc (Agustin, L,2010).

Undoubtedly, the growing sex industry in most countries of the developed and developing world is attributed to several economic, social, political, personal, security interrelated factors.

The most important of these factors are the aspects of poverty, low-income, prices rising, economic policies, the permission of night-clubs opening license, holding Miss World and Miss Country competitions, the large difference between social classes deteriorated standards of living, family violence and disharmony, family size, literacy spread, discrimination among children, unemployment, addiction, marriage avoidance due to its high costs, high rates of sinister, women legal and illegal migration, internal conflicts, administrative corruption and other reasons that may vary from one country to another. The sex industry is a work that needs not scientific qualifications or experience but rather only beauty. This is the main qualification which the prostitution profession needs to let the woman join that profession and professionalize the sex industry(Brents, B.G., Jackson, C.A., & Hausbeck, K. (2009).

Reviewing the sex industry in the Netherlands, France, Germany, Austria, Britain, Belgium, Greece, Italy, Spain, Denmark, and Finland, it is permitted and unpunished provided the harlot has a working permit. She does not enjoy, however, the workers rights or the social assurance privileges. As for those non-European, they are not permitted to work in the sex industry. In certain cases like (Italy), they can obtain work permit as artists and accordingly they can work as entertainers at clubs, bars and striptease. They will leave the country and their visa cancelled when they encroach that rule. As for the sex industry in Ireland, prostitution is prohibited, illegal and considered as a crime punished according to the law, while dancing and striptease are legal and permitted as they require visa and work permit for foreigners (Andrijasevic, R.,2010).

As for the sex industry in the Arab world, prostitution is illegal and punished by the law either by imprisonment or whipping as the case of Saudi Arabia despite its spread particularly in countries described as tourist countries like Morocco, Egypt, Tunisia and Lebanon.

According to the report of the US department of state in 2011 entitled “human trade” that covered 184 countries concerned with the phenomenon as the number of the least-prostitution spread countries is 32 countries, medium-prostitution spread countries are 129 countries including Egypt while the most-prostitution spread countries are 23 countries.

The number of the most effective global networks in the sex field is about fifty networks around the world. According to the United Nations program for Development in 2010, the world criminal product of this industry represents third of the most profitable activities of the international trade after that of drugs and weapons. It is valued almost $ US 1200 annually and represents 15% of the world trade size. This phenomenon spreads in some Asian countries (India, The Philippines, Thailand, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka), Mexico has recently joined, the Central America countries (Cuba, Costa Rica, Dominica), South America countries (Brazil), the former Soviet Union countries and Africa (Kenya, Tunisia, Morocco and Egypt).

The number of women working in prostitution in Thailand is about two million women, in the Philippines 50 thousand women, in Indonesia about 65 thousand women, in India almost 10 million women, in Malaysia about 142 thousand women, in Vietnam about 70 thousand women, in the United States almost one million women, in the Netherlands almost 30 thousand, and in Germany about 20 thousand. The number of women working in the prostitution activity in the South East Asia is about half a million. In the independent countries that were formerly affiliated to the Soviet Union, the Eastern and central Europe countries about 200 thousand, in the Latin America, Caribbean islands almost 100 thousand and in Africa about 50 thousand (GAATW,2006).

The statistics of the World Labor Organization in 2010 indicate that since the early 1990s, 200 thousand of Bangladeshi women were deported to Pakistan to practice prostitution, while in Thailand there are more than 30 thousand women originally from Myanmar working in the sex industry. There are more than 150 thousand women working in the sex industry in Japan who are not from Japanese origins, 50% of them are from the Philippines, 40% of them are from Thailand. India annually hosts less than 18 years old 30 thousand Nepalese women to practice prostitution through women trafficking channels. In the Western Europe, foreign women represent more than of 70% of women working in the sex industry. In some countries like Greece, Austria this rate reaches 90% while in Belgium it is 80%.

The sex industry activity has recently witnessed in different regions of the world a remarkable increase particularly in the former Soviet Union countries, Eastern and Central Europe. The Netherlands has become a world favorite sex tourist destination, in the capital, Amsterdam there are 250 prostitution places among the total 700 places in the Netherlands as a whole. Eighty percent of women working in sex activity belong to foreign origins; 70% of them are staying illegally. To flourish the prostitution market in the Netherlands, the Dutch minister of justice in 2000 has called for the necessity to allocate a legal quota for the sex profession for the foreign women as long as the Dutch prostitution market requires variety of bodies offered for sale. As the prostitution activity has become in the Netherlands in October 2001 a legally recognized industry, the activity has witnessed a growth estimated 25% and it represents 5% of the Dutch economy. Despite the legal recognition of the prostitution profession in the Netherlands, the rate of registered prostitutes in that activity is only about 4%. Thus, the legal recognition of the profession has not provided a solution of the outstanding problem, but it has led to the emergence of new problems as the illegal places exceeded the legal ones. The domestic prostitution related to migration from the village to town and then the cities in Japan, West Europe, North America has flourished to provide sex services (O’Connell Davidson, J.,2006).

The problem of women working in this industry dwell on the method controls organizing this type of services (whether at the operational level or the working circumstances level). It is the method of forcing agreement (compulsory trafficking). Therefore, the distinction between the volunteer or forced worker in this industry is the basis of this problem. Some believe that prostitution is not a kind of violence against women, but a tarnished profession. In fact, this liberal stance has the support of the world and European organizations. This concept overlooks the answer of the following question: how can a man become a commodity and the social relationships turned from being moral value to cash value?

Undoubtedly, the commoditization of man happens for high price that is the use of violence and force through which the man turns to a commodity consumed in different forms and ways. According to the United Nations estimates in 2007 there are 9 million annually enter the trafficking field which has a return of $ US 5-7 billion for the criminal organizations. The United Nations asserts that the number of women working in the prostitution field highly exceeds the number of those exploited as maids or cheap labors. These women as being commodities represent doubled interest for their owners in terms of the money value and the service value (production) at the same time. These commodities are sold in the domestic markets, then the regional and international markets where a series of distribution is followed and launched in areas with poor capitals then in intensive-money areas.

Some believe in the light of the early-mentioned that the global prostitution trafficking activity for sex end essentially looks like all other patterns of illegal trade. Others believe that the market law whether legal or not is the one that explains the vitality of this economic sector (sex industry) which subjects to the conditions of supply and demand as well.

The successive auctions of selling and purchasing women to the world mafia in order to distribute hem according to the world supply and demand represents an inhuman and merciless action. This the prostitution activity is not a mere trade but an industry requires high organizing ability through prostitution pimps organized within the criminal networks spread around the world with the aim of attracting, transporting and selling in order to achieve huge profits with the aid and collaboration of those benefited from this industry like the world hotel chains, airlines and tourism industry. The governments themselves benefit from this industry which the international organizations consider as one of the national income components in the countries where this phenomenon spreads.

The World Labor Organization in 1999 estimates prostitution to represent around 2-12% of the GDP in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines. In 1995, the prostitution yields in Thailand valued about 59-60% of the government budget. Therefore, the Thailand government in 1997 had promoted the sex tourism in various ways the transfer of the sex trade into an industry has contributed in developing and providing sex production and services according to the regional and international division of the work. The pornography movies industry is considered as integral services of the sex industry as their transactions valued about 52 billion Euros.

The studies (GAATW,2011) refer to about 85-90% of sex workers subject to the prostitution pimps as a precondition of work; the pimp obtains about 75-90% of the activity daily return. In France the, the activity daily return for one case valued about 50-800 Euros daily (110 thousand Euros annually) for the prostitute’s owner. And the returns differ from a case to another. The workers in the activity in the Netherlands, Belgium, Germany, Austria and some other countries rent compartments look like cages to offer their sex services to the customers.

This activity subjects to legal, administrative and regular health conditions such as permits, insurance, tax payment, health checkup to assert they are free of certain diseases like Aids. The compartment daily cost about 90 dollars with average daily customers’ number of 15-25 customers. Therefore, they are required to work for 10-15 hours per day. It is difficult for them to remit money abroad as they are not allowed to travel and they are constantly observed by the pimps to avoid the escape cases. The obtained money is usually spent in sex-service related purchases or paying fines for encroaching the work procedures, etc. Kidnapping, raping, horror, liquidation, murder and social isolation by the crime-organizing gangs and the career pimps are important elements contribute to the industry continuity. These elements are important not only for developing the prostitution markets but producing these inhuman commodities. The studies refer to real humiliation camps where women are raped and tamed to work in the prostitution career in some countries like the Balkans, Thailand, Brazil, the USA and others.

Although June 26 of every year is considered as an international day against drugs abuse and illicit trafficking, it is regrettable that sexualisation is considered as an entertaining industry and legal work after Germany and the Netherlands have added the legal legitimacy to the prostitution activity under the liberal trend, globalization, liberalization of prostitution and sex markets (women trafficking for sex goals) in the light of supporting the international organizations stances including the United Nations, the World Trade Organization support of that trend. The legalization of sex markets will lead to support and encourage the activities of pimps organizations and organized crimes Some believe that the legalization of prostitution contributes to publicly highlight, organize and control the phenomenon.

It incorporates it into the national economy sectors yielding taxes and contributing to the trade promotion. Its legalization is considered as a means to curb it and prevents its hidden extension to al areas in the state. However the truth contradicts this as the phenomenon legalization leads to its spread. The experiences of several states refused to legalize prostitution then have recently joined the option of prostitution prevention or at least curb its space such as S weden that approved the anti-prostitution act in 1999 that stipulates stronger punishment for the customers more than that of the prostitutes themselves. Among states that abstain from legalizing prostitution is Bulgaria in line of the anti-human trafficking efforts for the prostitution purposes. Among the states in which the prostitution legalization experience has failed is the Netherlands that calls for the necessity of overall review of the prostitution act and impose further stronger restrictions for granting the work permits. According to these restrictions, 33 working license are cancelled for sex companies as part of anti-prostitution campaign.