ECONOMICS OF PROSTITUTION IN THE WORLD AND ITS IMPLICATIONS: THE SEX INDUSTRY

Several young ladies in Egypt are trafficked due to the worse economic conditions of their families. This trafficking can be noticed in the form of continued exploiting the poor women who works for the rich in Egypt besides the exploitation results from temporary working as maids. Egypt has experienced a new type of women trafficking, i.e. the tourist marriage. According to the US department of State in 2010, Egypt is considered as source, transit stop and destination of women movement for sex purpose. It has become a destination Iraqi women coming to it for this purpose; besides the sex exploitation and enforcement to work at the night clubs of some African immigrants and refugees (the Sudan, Ethiopia, and Eritrea). Egypt has become a transit country for the Israeli women coming from Russia, Ukraine, Moldavia, and Eastern Europe countries for sex trade.

Egypt comes on the top of the Arab countries after Morocco in which the tourist marriage spreads as its number in 2007 estimated 40 thousand cases. The tourist marriage duration (often of underage) ranges between two weeks and two months, it may extends for a year or more. This marriage has been largely promoted among the gulf circles (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE), particularly among the rich and sometimes those looking for sex enjoyment but under legal cover away from the prohibited ways. The Arab world sex trade size values more than US $ 20 billion annually. The tourist sex size in Egypt values almost U $ 3 billion or the equivalent of 30% of the Egyptian tourist income (Women National Council in Egypt, 2011).

In addition, another problem embodies in the Egyptian youth marriage (20-25 years old) of above-age foreign tourists (50-60 years old), particularly in the tourist cities like Luxor, Hurghada, and Sharm El-Sheikh whose number estimated 35 thousand case according to the Egyptian Justice Ministry in 2010. Some of them own lands, real estates in Egypt, a mater that leads to the remarkable rise of prices (John R, Bradley, 2008).

A fieldwork study has shown the social effects of the tourist marriage phenomenon. It targeted 40 young ladies who have experienced that marriage which often comprises the age category of 20-24 years old by 38%, followed by the age category of 15-19 years old by 35% and the age category of 25-29 years old that came in the lowest rank by 20% of the sample total (Research Centre for Social Studies,2010).

Thirty percent of the tourist- marriage young women are secondary-school educated, followed by 22.5% of primary-school educated and in the third place are the preparatory-school educated by 17.5%. the rate of university tourist marriage young women is 12.5%, then those who can read by 7.5% and the diploma-holders tourist marriage young women are equal to those literate young women by 5%. The study has indicated that most of the sample interviewees are inhabitants of the city by 29.5% of the total research sample, while the rural inhabitants constitute only 7.5% of the total research sample. In addition, 57.5% of families approves the tourist marriage are average-income families, largely followed by poor families that constitute 30% only of the total research sample, while the rich families constitute 12.5% of the total research sample. In a recent study conducted in three towns affiliated to October 6 governorate, the tourist marriage rate is almost 7.4%. This type of tourist marriage is concentrated in known areas namely Cairo, Alexandria, Luxor and the areas of Hammadaya and Badrashin in Giza where most families agree to the marriage of their under-eighteen tear old daughter to the rich Arab for ten thousand Egyptian pounds. Should the daughter disagree to the marriage, she will be met by violence and refusal on the part of her family to force her accepting that marriage. She may escape from her family and in that case she will face another type of trafficking i.e. prostitution.

The reasons behind the increase of this phenomenon in Egypt are attributed to the poverty rate increase in Egypt from 19.6% to 21.6% according to the human development report of 2010. The other reason behind the increase of this phenomenon is that the increase of the slums areas in Egypt which lack most of the main utilities and services. This leads most of the young women living in the poor areas to escape from their families’ houses to lo ok for new life in the city away from villages and slums. According to the UN anti-Aids report in March 2008, more than 42% of Aids infected Egyptians acknowledges their involvement in sex trafficking. The Egyptian government declared the results of a survey conducted in 2009 that 50% of the homeless young women in Egypt practice sex, 45% of them were raped. According to a recent report of the United Nations in 2010 on drugs and crimes, 79% of the human trafficking is conducted for the purpose of sex exploitation. The harlots are spread in the Cairo and Giza streets, mainly the Haram Street for L.E. 300 only. In addition, the phenomenon of the most-expensive pornography tapes spreads as well. The most-well known streets of sex in Cairo are Emad El-Din Street, Mohamed Ali Street and Klout Bek Street. Notably, prostitution is Egypt was legalized and allowed; then later that law was abolished (Heba, Mohamed, Ali, and Mo’ataz, Sayed, Gomma, 2004).

According to the US Department of State in 2010 “the Egyptian government does not represent the minimum standards to eliminate the human trafficking”. There is no official statistics on the rates of prostitution and its places in Egypt, perhaps because the government does not care to face that crime committed against women and young women, or as there is inadequate information provided by families to the police on the issues of prostitution and young women escape fearing of scandals. Among the most important anti-prostitution and women trafficking efforts exerted by the Egyptian government is the creation of the national coordinating committee based on the Prime Minister’s decree in July, 2007 besides the approval of the Egyptian People Assembly in April 2010 to pass the anti human trafficking Act no. 64 of 2010. Furthermore, the enforcing regulation of the Act was approved by the decree no. 3028 of 2010 as it stipulates the responsibility of the ministries of Home, Health, Education, Family and Population to implement the Act aims to face all human trafficking related crimes that violate the main human rights. The Act stipulates the punishment of those involved in that crime by hard imprisonment and not less that L.E. 50 thousand fine. The Act criminalized human trafficking for sex exploitation purpose, prostitution, forced labor or compulsory serving.