Monthly Archives: December 2013

THE STATE OF DEMOCRACY IN PAKISTAN: INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

The nature, evolution and trajectory of Pakistan are critical to global security and even world order. A nuclear armed state that has been deemed by many on the edge of state failure or tottering on the verge of collapse, at odds with some of its neighboring states and pursuing a foreign policy that redounds negatively to itself and the world constitute reasons for alarm for both Pakistan and the world at large. It can be contended that these set of conditions or state of affairs accrue from the nature and ideational premise of Pakistan, its convoluted and torturous history and trajectory, institutional morass and confusion, state formation, the warped nature and wielding of power, the dysfunctional civil military relations, misaligned state society relations and the attendant, lack of pluralism and social, political and economic apathy.

THE OWNERSHIP OVER COMMON PROPERTY RESOURCES: COMMUNITY RIGHTS

Land and territorial right of people often receive no explicit legal recognition (Mathur, 2009, p.176). When laws do recognize such rights, they are seldom defended in practice, especially if they conflict with wider national development goals. The Panchayats extension act of 1996, of Panchyat extension to scheduled areas or PESA as it is commonly known as, is major move to recognize the rights of the tribal people over the natural resources that they manage, and on which depend for their livelihoods However, the act has not been implemented, and the communal management of forest remains mere promise. Despite the oppositions from tribal people, the forest areas are allocated to corporations to invest in mining and other projects.

The new legislation of government is often contrary to the world view and traditional practices of these people. With respect to the right of use natural resources, in the best of case there is a contraction between the spirit and the letter of law and it is also contrary to the customary law of indigenous people. The owners of the land become are today landless. The land reforms were limited in its scope. They promoted further commercialization and capitalization of land without respecting the community ownership over theses resources.

THE OWNERSHIP OVER COMMON PROPERTY RESOURCES: EMINENT DOMAIN

EMINENT DOMAIN

The process of state control over common property resources started with the period of colonialism. The genesis of the problem of environmental degradation thus stems from the alienation of local people form their natural resources base with colonial days. The British administration directed its forest policy towards commercial interest which was the major sources of revenue. This led to the establishment of forest department. These motives were explicitly documented in the Indian forest acts 1865, 1878 and 1927 and national forest policy of 1894 during colonial era (Balooni, 2009, p.3). These legal policy instruments radically changed the fortes from common property to state property. The sole motive behind this policy was to promote state interests. This was the beginning of the alienation of village communities from the forests.

THE OWNERSHIP OVER COMMON PROPERTY RESOURCES: LIFE OF COMMUNITY

The concept of common property is still highly a controversial and complex one. Availability and exploitation of natural resources is considered as a major component of growth and development. These western approaches recognize only two types of property rights; state and private. These rights pertain to the permissible ownership and use of resources, goods and services. The ownership of an asset consists of rights to use of that asset; change of its form, substance and transfer of all rights through sale of ownership (Bushal, 2009, p.109).Beyond government and private there existing a large area of human organizations and activity through which people collectively advance their wealth and well- being.

THE OWNERSHIP OVER COMMON PROPERTY RESOURCES: INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION

The ownership of common property of resources is still a contested debate in India. There is no consensus regarding the ownership of common property whether it is vested with state, individual and community. All forms of resources including land and water and other natural resources went out of the hands of communities those who preserved it from centuries. The cultural history speaks about the symbiotic relationship between tribal community and natural resources. The very character of control and management shifted from a community oriented to production, accumulation and surplus. Due to these factors Dalit and tribal have been denied any permanent right over any land or territory has only compounded that matter by making them completely dependent upon the owners and controllers of the means of production and livelihood. The relation of property in the means of production and nature of its relations among the people has also been altered.

MICRO FINANCING INSTITUTION: STRATEGIC ADVANTAGE IN FUTURE

ADVANTAGE IN FUTURE

SEEDS, is presently undergoing a major scope change and a strategic change in its business. The micro financing institution is converting itself in to a financing institution.

The top management is focusing on a technology driven culture, and planning to get strategic advantage above the competitors through latest technology. For this future e-commerce approach the IT team is given a substantial budget to go for the latest technologies in the world. As a result the new Core-banking system will be of improved architecture and heavy strategic focus.

Since the resistance for technology change is very low within the organization the following strategy can be recommended for SEEDS for its future business planning.

MICRO FINANCING INSTITUTION: CURRENT ISSUES RELATED

One of the major issues is; very low technology scalability in both the systems. To get the greatest benefits from an information system, it should be an adaptable tool that can progress as the business progresses. Since the technologies used were not adaptable operations get locked into inflexible technology.

Payroll management being a multifaceted job requires a comprehensive, and a flexible solution that fits the business. The Payroll Services is also responsible for processing payrolls, payroll distribution, payroll data, employee payroll deductions and employer/employee benefit premium payments. Coping with the rapid changes in payroll legislation and the advances in software and technology is a challenging and time-consuming task. The present system lacks these features and has become obsolete in technological aspects.

MICRO FINANCING INSTITUTION: SYSTEM FAILURE

SYSTEM FAILURE

Backing up of transaction data is vital in financial sector. Therefore regular backup procedures are applied for Core-banking system as described below and system recovery times are kept to a minimum to avoid interruptions to operations.

Daily backups of transactional data are taken at branch offices, and every Friday weekly backups are taken. These weekly backups are accumulative for a period of one month, therefore the 4th week back up automatically becomes a monthly data backup and it is sent to headquarters for archiving purposes.

To keep all the aspects of the business functioning in midst of any disruptive event, a disaster recovery plan is now in progress as a part of business continuation plan. This will keep branch operations alive, even when those offices are hit by a natural disaster. This is a strategic step and establishing necessary infrastructure, such as laying down networks, is in progress at present.